In this guide you learn how to draw with the pencil. I would like to show you briefly and succinctly different drawing technics and explain when and how you can use it best. Basically this instructions explains the drawing of shadows (but not proportions or perspective drawing).
It should be said that I just tell you my personal opinion and experience. That means this guide will certainly not show the one and only way to draw, but if you just want to learn to draw, it will certainly help you.
First of all we should differ between drawing a quick sketch or a lavish picture. Sketches are often drawn relatively quickly and drawn by scrawl technic. If you create a real drawing, it has to be more exactly and you will have to invested more time. Some people like it when you recognize a picture ist really a drawing - so that you can still see the pencil strokes. For other people it is a challenge to draw as photorealistic as possible, so that no single stroke can be identifed.
In art there is never a right or wrong way. It is important that you do what ever you like, because you will intend to express youself in your work.
So if you want to learn to draw realistically, it is important that the lines of the pencil become "invisible". The best way to do this ist to draw real small (tiny) strokes. In an area with large hatched strokes you can allways see the lines (or at least the stroke direction). Considering e.g. the first two hatchings in the image below. The first was drawn with larger lines - you can still recognise the stroke direction. The second was drawn with very small strokes - you can not see in which direction the pencil was moved.
Of course the second method is more time-consuming, but if you want to draw extremely realistic, there is no other way to do it. I have to dissuade from bluring with the finger or other instruments, as the image will become blurred und smudgy.
The picture above shows different kinds of drawing techniques. Each is used to draw a shadows gradient. The two hatchings in the first row right are drawings techniques which were drawn from vertically and parallel to the shadow gradient. You can recognize that these two tecniques realise different effects.
The two hatches in the second row left are cross-hatchings. The first hatching is drawn relatively neatly with individual strokes, the second is more scrawled.
The following hatch (second row, third from left) ist drawn with bows. E.g. you can draw the lines in a way that it is consistent with the curvature of a body. Thus you can clarify the behavior of a bodys shap with the help of your drawing.
You can also draw a kind of structure as you can see in the last line of the far right. You can depict very uneven objects, or even entirely different effects.
Of course there are unlimited other ways to draw a shadow. The examples are just something to encourage experimentation and show you some opportunities.
The picture below shows you various drawing techniques exemplary used on geometric bodys. There you can see how different hatchings effect on the viewer.
At best you try to draw different techniques on your own. Simply try out a lot of things and don't stop to experiment. Have fun learning to draw!
This website is about how to draw and paint. You will learn to use pencil and brush and how to drawn and paint your own pictures.